CVR) Subgroup"> Cast Vote Records (CVR) Subgroup

This subgroup is creating a common data format specification for cast vote records (CVRs). The specification supports 3 general use cases:

  1. Interoperable exports of CVRs from devices such as scanners, DREs (direct record electronic), or other devices that create CVRs and perform contest rule post-processing. Resultant interoperable import into tabulators, such as election management systems (EMS), or import into auditing systems, or import into adjudication systems.
  2. Interoperable exports of aggregated collections of CVRs from aggregating devices such as EMS.
  3. Interoperable export of CVRs from adjudication devices.
A JSON schema has been generated from the UML model such that scanners and other devices can export and import CVRs in JSON and validate usage against the schema. It should be straightforward to convert the JSON format to other formats such as comma-separated value.

To support auditing, the model contains the following:

  • Support for digitally-signed exports of CVRs.
  • Support for ballot-level auditing, i.e., there is an identifier that can be linked to an ID (identifier) on the corresponding paper ballot provided the scanner creating the CVR can impress an identifier on the ballot as it is scanned.
  • If the scanner does contest-rule post-processing of the ballot selections, indications of what actions the scanner took, e.g., "voter selection overridden by contest rules".
  • Indications of marginal marks, mark quality/density (if scanner is capable).
  • A CVR can include signed/hashed references to an associated image of the ballot or images of write-ins made by the voter on a paper ballot.
  • Improved handling of multi-sheet ballots so that one can more accurately count the number of multi-sheet ballots scanned even if page 1 or any other page is missing.
  • Capability to include batch IDs or other batch information.
  • Support to include adjustments to vote selections made by adjudicators.
For questions, please contact John P. Wack, chair.

Current Status

A use case, model, and XML and JSON schemas have been produced. The model/schema development is in its final stages for publication as a first version, with minor revisions scheduled as a result of meetings with manufacturers.

Working Documents

All working documents are located on the VRI GitHub repository:


Documentation for the VRI model/schema is located at:


Membership in this group is open to all; please add yourself to the membership page and subscribe to the email list, instructions below.

  • Arthur Keller
  • Benjamin Long
  • Chris Hughes
  • Chris Jerdonek
  • Danny Casias CO SoS
  • David Cary
  • dmz free and fair
  • Drew Tinney
  • Ed Smith
  • Harvie Branscomb election quality
  • Herb Deutsch
  • Ian Piper
  • Jay Bagga
  • Jerome Lovato CO SoS
  • Jim Canter
  • Jessi Romero CO SoS
  • Joe Kiniry Free and Fair
  • John Dziurla
  • John McCarthy Verified Voting
  • John Wack
  • Katy Owens-Hubler Democracy Fund
  • Kenneth Bennett
  • Larry Moore ClearBallot
  • Lauren Massa-Lochridge
  • Marko Krstovic
  • Mary Brady
  • Neal McBurnnett Election Audits
  • Pam Ravesi ClearBallot
  • Paul Aumayr MD Election Director
  • P Frichbourg ES&S
  • Ray Lutz Citizens Oversight
  • Ryan Macias EAC
  • Sam Dana
  • Tim Halvorsen ClearBallot
  • Tom Caddy Pensec

How to Join:

The email list for this subgroup is

To Join:

Click on the following link and include your full name and email address in the body of the message:

mailto:vvsg- cvr

You will then receive a confirmation email, to which you must reply.

To Leave:

Click on the following link and include your name in the body of the message:

To Change Email Address:

To change your email address or for any issues, please send an email to the chair of this working group, John P. Wack.


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Neal McBurnett has some experimental code to convert this to CSV format, one row per ballot, one column per candidate

-- Neal McBurnett - 2016-08-02

Topic attachments
ISorted ascending Attachment History Action Size Date Who Comment
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_UML_doc_v12.docx r1 manage 632.0 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_UML_doc_v16.docx r1 manage 960.3 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_telecon_notes_01-24.docx r1 manage 14.1 K 2017-03-06 - 17:51 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx Initial_use_case_for_cast_vote_records.docx r1 manage 13.6 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx List_of_CVR_model_proposed_changes_not_implemented_yet.docx r1 manage 15.1 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx meeting-minutes-2016-09-22.docx r2 r1 manage 13.6 K 2016-09-24 - 18:28 JohnWack  
JPEGjpg CastVoteRecords.jpg r2 r1 manage 604.8 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
JPEGjpg CastVoteRecords16.jpg r1 manage 669.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:34 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatjson CVR_Schema_V1.0-16.json r1 manage 31.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatmdzip NIST_V1.0-16_-_CastVoteRecords.mdzip r1 manage 153.7 K 2017-04-06 - 16:34 JohnWack  
PDFpdf Branscomb_CastVoteRecords_2v.pdf r1 manage 595.8 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
PDFpdf CVR_UML_doc_v16.pdf r1 manage 1023.0 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
PDFpdf CVR_requirements_for_next_VVSG.pdf r1 manage 347.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
PDFpdf Initial_use_case_for_cast_vote_records.pdf r1 manage 531.2 K 2016-09-22 - 19:09 JohnWack  
PNGpng CastVoteRecords.png r1 manage 661.2 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd ElectronicBallotProcessFlow.vsd r1 manage 58.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd ElectronicVotingFlow.vsd r1 manage 70.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd PaperBallotProcessFlow.vsd r1 manage 63.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatxsd NIST_V1_cast_vote_records.xsd r1 manage 8.0 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 540.5 K 2017-03-06 - 17:51 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 598.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:35 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 1999.7 K 2016-09-24 - 18:35 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 819.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
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Topic revision: r13 - 2017-07-24 - JohnWack
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