CVR) Subgroup"> Cast Vote Records (CVR) Subgroup

This subgroup is creating a common data format specification for cast vote records (CVRs). The specification supports 3 general use cases:

  1. Interoperable exports of CVRs from devices such as scanners, DREs (direct record electronic), or other devices that create CVRs and perform contest rule post-processing. Resultant interoperable import into tabulators, such as election management systems (EMS), or import into auditing systems, or import into adjudication systems.
  2. Interoperable exports of aggregated collections of CVRs from aggregating devices such as EMS.
  3. Interoperable export of CVRs from adjudication devices.
A JSON schema has been generated from the UML model such that scanners and other devices can export and import CVRs in JSON and validate usage against the schema. It should be straightforward to convert the JSON format to other formats such as comma-separated value.

To support auditing, the model contains the following:

  • Support for digitally-signed exports of CVRs.
  • Support for ballot-level auditing, i.e., there is an identifier that can be linked to an ID (identifier) on the corresponding paper ballot provided the scanner creating the CVR can impress an identifier on the ballot as it is scanned.
  • If the scanner does contest-rule post-processing of the ballot selections, indications of what actions the scanner took, e.g., "voter selection overridden by contest rules".
  • Indications of marginal marks, mark quality/density (if scanner is capable).
  • A CVR can include signed/hashed references to an associated image of the ballot or images of write-ins made by the voter on a paper ballot.
  • Improved handling of multi-sheet ballots so that one can more accurately count the number of multi-sheet ballots scanned even if page 1 or any other page is missing.
  • Capability to include batch IDs or other batch information.
  • Support to include adjustments to vote selections made by adjudicators.
For questions, please contact John P. Wack, chair.

Current Status

The Cast Vote Records Common Data Format Specification Version 1.0 has been published.

doi: 10.6028/NIST.SP.1500-103


Membership in this group is open to all; please add yourself to the membership page and subscribe to the email list, instructions below.

  • Arthur Keller
  • Benjamin Long
  • Chris Hughes
  • Chris Jerdonek
  • Danny Casias CO SoS
  • David Cary
  • dmz free and fair
  • Drew Tinney
  • Ed Smith
  • Harvie Branscomb election quality
  • Herb Deutsch
  • Ian Piper
  • Jay Bagga
  • Jerome Lovato CO SoS
  • Jim Canter
  • Jessi Romero CO SoS
  • Joe Kiniry Free and Fair
  • John Dziurla
  • John McCarthy Verified Voting
  • John Wack
  • Katy Owens-Hubler Democracy Fund
  • Kenneth Bennett
  • Larry Moore ClearBallot
  • Lauren Massa-Lochridge
  • Marko Krstovic
  • Mary Brady
  • Neal McBurnnett Election Audits
  • Pam Ravesi ClearBallot
  • Paul Aumayr MD Election Director
  • P Frichbourg ES&S
  • Ray Lutz Citizens Oversight
  • Ryan Macias EAC
  • Sam Dana
  • Stuart Holmes
  • Tim Halvorsen ClearBallot
  • Tom Caddy Pensec

Email List

The email list for this subgroup is

To join the list or find more information about list policies and related procedures, please visit the VVSG Working Group Lists page.

How to join working group mailing lists


Neal McBurnett has some experimental code to convert this to CSV format, one row per ballot, one column per candidate

-- Neal McBurnett - 2016-08-02

Topic attachments
I Attachment HistorySorted ascending Action Size Date Who Comment
PDFpdf Branscomb_CastVoteRecords_2v.pdf r1 manage 595.8 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatjson CVR_Schema_V1.0-16.json r1 manage 31.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_UML_doc_v12.docx r1 manage 632.0 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_UML_doc_v16.docx r1 manage 960.3 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
PDFpdf CVR_UML_doc_v16.pdf r1 manage 1023.0 K 2017-04-06 - 16:41 JohnWack  
PDFpdf CVR_requirements_for_next_VVSG.pdf r1 manage 347.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx CVR_telecon_notes_01-24.docx r1 manage 14.1 K 2017-03-06 - 17:51 JohnWack  
PNGpng CastVoteRecords.png r1 manage 661.2 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 540.5 K 2017-03-06 - 17:51 JohnWack  
JPEGjpg CastVoteRecords16.jpg r1 manage 669.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:34 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 598.1 K 2017-04-06 - 16:35 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 1999.7 K 2016-09-24 - 18:35 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd ElectronicBallotProcessFlow.vsd r1 manage 58.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd ElectronicVotingFlow.vsd r1 manage 70.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx Initial_use_case_for_cast_vote_records.docx r1 manage 13.6 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
PDFpdf Initial_use_case_for_cast_vote_records.pdf r1 manage 531.2 K 2016-09-22 - 19:09 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx List_of_CVR_model_proposed_changes_not_implemented_yet.docx r1 manage 15.1 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatmdzip NIST_V1.0-16_-_CastVoteRecords.mdzip r1 manage 153.7 K 2017-04-06 - 16:34 JohnWack  
Unknown file formatxsd NIST_V1_cast_vote_records.xsd r1 manage 8.0 K 2016-04-20 - 17:13 JohnWack  
Visio documentvsd PaperBallotProcessFlow.vsd r1 manage 63.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
Compressed Zip archivezip r1 manage 819.5 K 2017-04-10 - 12:23 JohnWack  
JPEGjpg CastVoteRecords.jpg r2 r1 manage 604.8 K 2017-03-06 - 17:40 JohnWack  
Microsoft Word filedocx meeting-minutes-2016-09-22.docx r2 r1 manage 13.6 K 2016-09-24 - 18:28 JohnWack  
Edit | Attach | Watch | Print version | History: r17 < r16 < r15 < r14 < r13 | Backlinks | Raw View | Raw edit | More topic actions
Topic revision: r17 - 2020-04-25 - JohnDziurlaj
This site is powered by the TWiki collaboration platform Powered by PerlPLEASE NOTE: This wiki is a collaborative website. NIST does not necessarily endorse the views expressed, or concur with the facts presented on these sites. Further, NIST does not endorse any commercial products that may be mentioned on these sites. All the material on this website is in the public domain, including any text, diagrams, or images, unless indicated explicitly. Don't share anything on this site that you do not want to be public. Do not pass any proprietary documents or put any on the TWiki with implied public disclosure. If you do, it shall be deemed to have been disclosed on a non-confidential basis, without any restrictions on use by anyone, except that no valid copyright or patent right shall be deemed to have been waived by such disclosure. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, materials, systems, software, and trade names may be identified throughout this site in order to specify or identify technologies adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor is it intended to imply that the systems or products identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. Any data provided on this site is for illustrative purposes only, and does not imply a validation of results by NIST. By selecting external links, you will be leaving NIST webspace. Links to other websites are provided because they may have information that would be of interest to you. No inferences should be drawn on account of other sites being referenced, or not, from this page. There may be other websites that are more appropriate for your purpose.